What is Wine?


Key factors in red wine taste and mouthfeel. Christopher Johnson, 2016

Amino Acids/ Proteins

Yeast need amino acids and ammonia for an efficient fermentation. Jessica Harness 2004

Fixed Acidity

Acidity is a fundamental property of wine, imparting sourness and resistance to microbial infection. Doug Nierman, 2004


The most abundant compounds in wine after water and ethanol. Christin Carlson, 2004


A key yeast metabolite and oxidation product. Tyler Thomas, 2004


Sulfites or sulfur dioxide is a fruit preservative widely used in dried fruits as well as wine.  It is also produced by the human body at the level of about 1000 mg (milligrams) per day.  Consumption of food preserved with sulfites is generally not a problem except for a few people who are deficient in the natural enzyme to break it down.  For these people, the additional sulfites from food can be a problem.  There are reports of severe and life threatening reactions when sulfites were added at erroneously and enormously high levels (100 times what was supposed to be used!) on salad bar veg

Red Wine Composition

Most of this data was collected and written by students of the class, Natural Products of Wine, in 2004. Their names are noted at the bottom of the articles. This is supplemented by additional student reports in 2015 and 2016.